Fecal Microbiota transplant (FMT)

Please click on the links below to read our articles. If you are interested in research findings, click here for links to research reports.

Fecal (faecal) microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient...

FMT involves restoration of the colonic flora by introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. by enema, obtained from a healthy human donor. It can also be used to treat a range of digestive conditions, including Clostridium difficile infection, colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and some neurological conditions.

(Taken from a much longer and quite helpful introduction here on Wikipedia.)

Bacteriotherapy FAQs. A comprehensive FAQs drawn up by John Scott for the Bacteriotherapy Facebook group.


Large scale production of fecal-transplant pills initiated. October 2015

Could a fecal transplant help to re-establish DAO? October 2015

Fecal microbiota transplantation - something more than merely a therapeutic curiosity. An as yet unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication suggesting that FMT is a potential therapy for a wide range of conditions from ulcerative colitis and type 2 diabetes to autism and Parkinson's disease. July 2015

New study investigates fecal transplants and Type 2 diabetes. December 2014

After the recent programme on Hitler's Hidden Drug Habit, John Scott sent us these comments about Mutaflor which is still very much with us today. October 2014

Is human waste an experimental drug? FDA faces challenges overseeing fecal transplant safety. From the Times Colonist. June 2014

Interesting blog on methods of delivery and efficacy for C diff. June 2014

Lengthy and excellent article on FMT in BBC News Magazine. May 2014

MIT lab hosts nation's first stool bank, but will it survive? March 2014

The Fecal Transplant Foundation – useful support group.

The future for FMT – luxury boutiques selling high-octane human stool? A gastroenterologist's predictions. December 2013

FDA rescinds requirement for an ‘Investigational New Drug’ research permit before administering faecal transplants for to combat Clostridium difficlie.  Article in Seattle Times. October 2013

New evidence reveals positive impact of fecal transplantation upon gut flora and digestive health. October 2013

Fecal Transplant pills successful in treating clostridium difficile. Researchers processed feces in a centrifuge, decanting the supernatant layer until it contained only bacteria, then encapsulated it in 3 layers of gelatin to ensure no leakage before the pills reach the small intestine. October 2013

Johns Hopkins Children's Center launch FMT programme for children with recurrent diarrhoea. July 2013

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation – Past, present and future. 'FMT is a highly effective cure for recurrent Colstruium difficile infection, but increased knowledge of the intestinal microbiota, and controlled trials of FMT in a wide range of disorders are needed before FMT can be accepted and applied clinically.' 2013

Parkinson's and the gut. An article in The Scientist suggesting, in the last two paragraphs, that FMT could have benefits for conditions such as Parkinson's, CFS, MS and acne and one in Medscape News asking whether Parkinson's might originate in the gut. June 2013

It's a gut reaction: how other people's bacteria can cure us. Lengthy article in the Guardian by Mary Roach. March 2013

Bacteriotherapy achieves a 70% initial success rate in a study of 60 patients suffering from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 52 of whom also suffered from IBS. In 58% of the patients the improvement was sustained. See here for the full article. March 2013

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation — An Old Therapy Comes of Age. Editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine. January 2013

The composition of dried human faeces found in archeological sites shows that the increasingly urban and cosmopolitan way of modern life has led to dramatic changes in the make-up of human intestinal flora. January 2013

An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool. January 2013

The Robogut, a unique system of flasks, tubes and high-tech monitors that simulates the lower intestinal tract and cultivates the trillion microbes that inhabit it, is allowing researchers to grow the complex ecosystems of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms — known collectively as the microbiota — that live in the human intestines and study the way they interact in their environment. February 2013

www.intestinalgardener.co.uk. A good blog for anyone interested in probiotcs and the science of gut bacteria.

Ulcerative Colitis: from the bottom up. 'Fecal bacteriotherapy is an accepted treatment for C. diff. infection but has yet to become widely offered for UC. Given the chronic and debilitating nature of the disease, and the long-term ineffectiveness of available prescription options, we had little to lose in trying this treatment in the only way we could make it readily available - at home. It has been worth the time and trouble to do so.' The e-book is avaiable from www.smashwords.com.

Video by Dr Lawrence Brandt on Fecal Microbiota Transplant Study Part I January 2012

Therapeutic transplantation of the distal gut microbiota – lengthy discussion of the therapy in Nature January 2011

The FMT coach - a book designed as a resource for others wishing to try FMT by a UC sufferer who used FMT on himself successfully.

The Power of Poop – useful blog about faecal microbiota transplants.

Gut Buddies Facebook wall - daily updates about the worms and bugs that keep us well.

Bacteriotherapy Facebook Group

UK. The Taymount Clinic for Digestive Health.
Australia. The Centre for Digestive Diseases, Sydney, NSW.
Australia. The Sydney Colon Health Clinic, St Leonards, NSW.
USA. The Bright Medicine Clinic, in Portland, Oregon, USA.
USA. RDS Probiotic Infusions. Georgia USA

Media coverage:

The s**t hits the fan – FDA, INDs, and fecal microbiota transplant. Short article in the Scientific American on the FDA's decision to require an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for stool transplants for the treatment of C. difficile colitis. May 2013

Swapping Germs: Should fecal transplants become routine for debilitating diarrhea? Scientific American 12/11

Fecal transplants: the scoop on therapeutic poop. Science on Line 11/11

The Power of the Poop - Freakonomics Radio 03/11

The Enema of Your Enemy is Your Friend - Slate 01/11

Scientists Treat Hospital Infection With 'Fecal Transplant' – Fox News 01/11

Same poop, different gut. - The Scientist - 11/10

A Cure Almost Worse than D: Transplanted Poop Cures Diabetes - tudiabetes.org 10/10

EASD: Fecal Transplant Flushes Insulin Resistance. MedPage Today - 09/10

How Microbes Defend and Define Us - NYTimes - 07/10

Poop Treatment for Baby's Diarrhea. - Peoples' Pharmacy - 02/10

No butts about it — fecal transplants work for some. Body Odd NBC News 12/08

Don't poo-poo technique: Fecal transplant can cure superbug, doctors say. CBS News 11/07

Poop Is The Cure. People Report - 06/02



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Research Reports

FMT proves successful for treating paediatric infections of Clostridium Difficile. November 2014

FMT shows potential for treating alcoholic liver disease. April 2014

Fecal transplantation successful in children with ulcerative colitis. June 2013

Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent C difficile infection: Ready for prime time? February 2013

Fecal Microbial Transplantation promising treatment for Ulcerative Colitis. April 2013

Treating Clostridium difficileiInfection with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. December 2012

Faecal transplants outperfom conventional antibiotics in treated recurring infections of Clostridium difficile. January 2013

Faecal transplants can help relieve severe diarrhoea. January 2013

Synthetic 'poop' can cure C. difficile infection January 2013

As more conditions are being shown to be related to a disturbance of the microbiome, FMT may be of value in applications other than just treating C. difficult infections. October 2012

Faecal microbiota transplantation as a treatment for ulcerative colitis: does the evidence stack up? October 2012

Faecal transplants safe, and effective in more than 90% of cases of C. difficile infectio. October 2012

Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome after bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.May 2010

Fecal Microbiota Transplants effective treatment for C. Difficile, Inflammatory Bowel Disease 12/11

Patients With Bowel Disease eager to test 'fecal' theray June 2011

Fecal flora reconstitution for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: results and methodology September 2010

Treatment of ulcerative colitis using fecal bacteriotherapy July 2003


First Published in July 2003


NB Information on this site is not a substitute for medical advice and no liability can be assumed for its use.


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