Causes of allergy

Research references are listed, as nearly as possible, by the dates on which the research was first published or brought into the public domain. Clicking on the title of the research will take you either to a precis of the findings (with further links to the relevant source material) or directly to that source material.

Because many original research papers remain restricted by publishers it is not always possible to link visitors to the original research so the links that we give will normally be to the 'second level' reports from reliable and respected sources such as MedicalNewsToday, WebMD, MedPage Today and Medscape.

If you wish to pursue your own researches beyond these pages, one of our regular contributors, John Scott, has some suggestions for sites which will provide you with reliable and informative material.


Could prenatal stress affect the microbiota of the infant? January 2015

Could prenatal and postnatal supplementation of bifidobacteria be effective in primary preventing allergic diseases? July 2014

Review of Caesarean section and chronic immune disorders suggests that while C Section delivery increased the risk for asthma, systemic connective tissue disorders, juvenile arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, immune deficiencies, and leukemia there ws no assocatioation with type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, or celiac disease. October 2014

The gut microbiota and its role in the development of allergic disease: a wider perspective. December 2014

New studies suggest that estrogen may enhance the levels and activity of an enzyme that drives life-threatening allergic reactions – in mice. The study results may help explain why women frequently experience more severe allergic reactions compared to men. December 2014

Delivery mode (vaginal/caesarean) alters newborn's bacterial exposure and may suppress inflammatory response. December 2014 and
Delivery mode also affects the microbiota of the mother's milk. December 2014

Profilins are complete food allergens in food-allergic patient populations that are exposed to high levels of grass pollen. Observed reactions suggest that intake through the oral mucosa might constitute a relevant route of exposure to food allergens. October 2014

Food allergy related to specific primary immunodeficiency diseases. December 2014

Intestinal permeability - a new target for disease prevention and therapy. Review summarising the data that are accumulating emphasizing the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. Stephan Bischoff and colleagues in BMC Gastroenterology. November 2014

Children up to 2 years of age with early-onset or severe atopic dermatitis/eczema are at higher risk of food allergy. January 2014

How microbial exposures can be associated with allergic immune responses. January 2014

Alterations in the gut microbiota composition are associated with food allergy. October 2014

Both active and passive smoking associated with a modest risk of increase in allergic disease, including food allergy, in children. March 2014

Review of recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases. October 2014

Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood. September 2014

Environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases beginning to shape the neonatal immunity in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. September 2014

CGRP, a neurotransmitter of enteric sensory neurons, contributes to the
development of food allergy due to the augmentation of microtubule reorganization
in mucosal mast cells. June 2014

Breast feeding may not protect against food allergy but is associated with other health outcomes, including lower rates of ear, throat, and sinus infections and dietary habits that may have long-term health consequences. September 2014

Some antibiotics in early life may alter immunity long-term. August 2014

Clostridium bacteria may protect against food allergies. August 2014

Perinatal (immediately before and after birth) exposure to Bisphenal A (widely used in plastic including babies' bottles but claimed to be harmless although there have been concerns about its use for some years) coud increase the risk of developing food intolerance in adulthood. August 2014

Exposure to food allergens through inflamed skin promotes intestinal food allergy through the thymic stromal lymphopoietin-basophil axis. May 2014

Food allergens found in mattress dust may be an important source of allergen exposure. January 2014

Helminthic therapy and pregnancy with reference to the possibility of preventing allergy/autism in the child - an overview of the research on John Scott's blog. April 2014

More research suggests that children brought up on dairy farms have much lower incidence of allergy. June 2014

Increasing evidence suggests that perturbations in the intestinal microbiota composition of infants are implicated in the pathogenesis of food allergy. April 2014

A case for antibiotic perturbation of the microbiota leading to allergy development. November 2013

The Impact of Family History of Allergy on Risk of Food Allergy: A Population-Based Study of Infants. June 2014

Newborns exposed to dirt, dander, germs may have lower allergy, asthma risk. Benefits not found for older children. June 2014

Food allergy can be triggered by application of the food to broken skin. April 2014

If early microbial colonisation is delayed in mice, the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) fail to develop, leading to persistent immune dysregulation. April 2014

Allergy and immune disorders can result from mutations in gene involved in sugar metabolism. March 2014

Children treated with gastric reflux drugs (GAS) more likely to develop food allergies. September 2013

Stress can worsen allergy symptoms. April 2014

Use of paracetamol in early life is a strong risk factor for allergic disease in childhood. April 2014

Antibiotic treatment induces gut fungal overgrowth which promotes allergic airway inflammation. January 2014

Evidence for a causal link between birth mode/birth order and allergy risk, via modulation of the microbiota composition. January 2014

Atopic dermatitis and disease severity are the main risk factors for food sensitization in exclusively breastfed infants. February 2014

Altered fecal microbiota composition associated with food allergy in infants. February 2014

Study suggests link between high vitamin D levels at pregnancy and pediatric allergy. 2013

The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. December 2013

Gender relevant in prevalence of allergy. November 2013

of treatment with antacid medication is associated with an increased prevalence of food allergy. May 2013

Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation. September 2013

Hapten-chemical-atopy hypothesis III: the potential role of airborne chemicals. August 2013

Parental fat consumption can leave a "lard legacy" impacting their offspring’s microbiota and immunity. September 2013

Chronic worm infection in pregnant mothers appears to protect the child from eczema and wheeze. May 2011

Caesareans weaken gut microbiota and increase risk of allergies. August 2013

An infant diet consisting of high levels of fruits, vegetables, and home-prepared foods is associated with less food allergy by the age of 2 years. July 2013

History of treatment with antacid medication is associated with an increased prevalence of food allergy. May 2013

First direct evidence that vitamin D sufficiency may be an important protective factor for food allergy in the first year of life. April 2013

Eczema may play a key role in the development of food allergy in infants. July 2013

Children with high proportions of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cord blood at birth are more likely to develop respiratory and skin allergies in their early teens. July 2013

Vitamin D sufficiency may be an important protective factor for food allergy in the first year of life. April 2013

Transgenes used to develop GM crops show close links with certain allergens Hev b 10 and Cap a 1w, and  links with a number of others. February 2012

Australian children with Low Vitamin D levels at age one are three times more likely to develop allergies. March 2013

Foreign-born children who did not have allergies when they arrived became more likely to develop them after 10 years of residence in the US. February 2013

Babies born by C-section five time more likely to develop allergies by the age of two. February 2013

Triclosan - an antibacterial chemical found in toothpaste and other products - can contribute to an increased risk of allergy development in children. November 2012

High levels of dichlorophenols, a chemical used in pesticides and to chlorinate water, may weaken food tolerance in some people, causing food allergies. December 2012

Western diet is changing the gut bacteria of developed nations, which is causing an increase in allergy. September 2012

Allergy risk in children increases if parent of the same sex has allergies. August 2012

The more highly educated the parents, the more likely the children are to have asthma, wheeze and eczema. June 2012

Food allergies more common in the city. June 2012

Amish farm children freer from allergies even than Swiss farm children. June 2012

Intestinal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in children and its the relationship to food hypersensitivity. May 2012

Excess hygiene may weaken developing immune systems. March 2012

Allergic to cold? It is a real condition. January 2012

Dirt prevents allergy. November 2011

Allergy fears from new and GM foods. June 2011

Allergens transferred in blood more common than previously thought. June 2011

Allergic reactions enhanced by mobile phone use. May 2011

When it comes to certain allergies, birth order matters. March 2011

Semen allergy suspected in rare post-orgasm illness. January 2011

The consumption of fish in infancy and living on a farm both signficantly reduce the incidence of allergic disease in children. June 2010

Climate change grows more allergen-producing plants and fungi – rising CO2, temperatures can raise allergen levels. November 2010

Foetal development in the womb can affect a child’s chances of developing allergies or wheezing. October 2010

Children, males and blacks are at increased risk for food allergies. October 2010

Parasites may protect against allergies – the hygiene hypothesis vindicated. December 2010

Molecule that could ‘turn on’ allergy discovered. January 2010

Microbes help mothers protect children from allergies. December 2009

Dirt helps broken skin to heal and reduces allergic response. November 2009

Excess omega 6 fatty acids really do cause allergy. September 2009

Early herpes infection may protect against allergies? September 2009

Smoking prevents allergies! September 2009

Transplanting allergies. September 2009

Cystitis linked with food allergy. September 2009

A possible link between obesity and allergies in children. May 2009

Massive Indian study seeks cause for allergy in modern life. July 2009

Farm bacteria may help mothers protect their children from allergies. 2009

Henna tattoos can cause allergic reactions. September 2008

Birch pollen/soya cross-reactivity. July 2008

Permanent makeup: solution or nightmare? June 2008

Toxic shower curtains. September 2008

Relatedness of animal and human proteins and allergy. December 2007

Nut allergy passed in blood transfusion. July 2007

Antibiotics and Allergies. May 2006

Fatty foods may cause higher allergy risk. May 2006

The proteins we react to. July 2004


Miscellaneous articles on the causes of food allergy/intolerance


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